The principle of operation of automobile airbag
It is difficult to find the motorist who would challenge importance of such non-standard accessory of the car as airbags. The first time has heard the world about these original safety devices 65 years ago, after publication by Walter Linderer of the unusual patent which has brought it then world fame, gratitude of millions of people. Long-term practice has proved their huge value for drivers and passengers of the cars equipped with such devices at the expense of what in accidents it was succeeded to save set of human lives, to save people from huge number of mutilations as at road accident the protective pillow reveals almost instantly – as a rule, for only a few fractions of a second. However the few fans and professionals of the automotive industry in detail know how the airbag having the name airbag in the international society works.
Principle and conditions for operation of airbag. What represents itself аэрбег: the gear device Depending on where it is located protective аэрбег and for what it is established, it can be several types: frontal and side, head and knee, central and combined. The airbag device at all variety of their versions differs in the plain design designed to facilitate considerably during accident the blows addressed to the driver or the passenger. Most often their contact pieces fall on different parts of wheel, body, window, other details, reaching considerable force. In the absence of airbag each such blow, depending on car speed, can reach the enormous size that will become impossible in the presence of the defensor. With it the actual force of emergency blow will be considerably smaller. Therefore in practice it often will not constitute for people considerable danger, especially deadly threat.
The complex of this original protection consists of several autonomous components. It differs actually in pillow – the special capacity from nylon material finishing during emergency case when it sharply includes air and also the sensor and system which inflates pillow. As materials for its lubricant serve starch or talc. The complex is compactly difficult, it is located so that from its interior it is not visible. The sensor as he should make the fatal decision when the pillow has to be exhausted is considered the most sensitive part of complex. Most often it occurs already at crash at speed at least of 20 kilometers per hour. In turn, not less important task is assigned to the system of inflation – during crash instantly “to shoot”, pump in the safety device necessary mixture.
The bag the Important accessory of airbag of the car is bag. It has appearance of thin nylon mantle from several layers, thickness it often does not exceed 0.4 millimeters. Key advantage of such mantle is that at the expense of heavy-duty material of which it is made it manages to sustain huge short-term loading at blow. Have bag in volume of the special tire closed by special molding from plastic or fabric.
Blow sensors Most often front part of the car is equipped with these important devices. Such sensor is designed to be responsible for expeditious operation of safety system of the car, activating it at once after contact piece to other object if speed exceeds 20 kilometers per hour. The system is arranged so that the defensor is capable to shoot even then when the car does not move, and stands still – if rather strong was got hit. The sensor can be one of two types: shock (it defines the blow which has come to body) or the sitting sensor for passengers. If there are no passengers in the car, it is easy to switch-off such gear.
Types of gas generator the Task of each generator – to fill mantle of the safety device with which it makes the module of this adaptation, gas. Generators differ in variety of forms, functioning modes and also formation of gas. Depending on these vectors, the generator can be dome-shaped or tubular look. On modes of operation there are generators one – and two-level mode of action. There are also solid propellant models, hybrid. Except cases and cartridges, are their part: solid-fuel option – the special mixture made by sodium aside, silicon dioxide, potassium nitrate, hybrid option – gas charge under high pressure. Airbag of latest models are equipped with two pyros. The main of them exhausts 80% of all gas volume (in format of so-called soft landing), and additional serves for secure of the basic at very hard blow. Frontal airbags For the first time such designs have begun to be applied by cars of the brand Mercedes-Benz rather recently – in 1981. They have two versions: there is frontal gear of protection of the passenger sitting ahead which at its absence or desire it is possible to switch-off and also the frontal device of protection of the driver. The location of the first of them – the front panel (its top right part), and the second conceals in itself wheel. Some modern cars have also options of two-level, multistage modes of operation of these protective gears depending on weight of emergency blow. They are called adaptive safety devices
By means of these defensors traumatizing probability is possible to minimize side airbags during road accident of such sensitive parts of human body as basin, abdominal cavity and thorax. For the first time the well-known automobile Volvo which has suggested to establish them in the form of options managed to apply this effective innovation 24 years ago. Such protection structures have most often equipped zones of back of front seat, however, also such models where they are mounted in rear seat are produced. The great popularity was gained also by versions of bilocular devices which have more rigid heel protecting basin, and at the expense of soft top the breast is reliably protected.
Head blinds So call devices which task – effective protection of the head at angle collisions in the car. Toyota was pioneer of their installation 20 years ago. The location of these blinds – in front segment of roof, in space between racks and roof back. They are used by the passengers taking front and both rear places. The airbag knee its task defines the name of the device. It is designed to protect driver’s shins and knees effectively. For the first time it was established 22 years ago by the KIA company. Such device from below about wheel is located. Some modern auto models are equipped with knee option of passenger protection which is ahead. The device is hidden from below “glove box”.
The central protection of the Toyota Company belongs introduction in 2009 of version of the central adaptation of safety designed to soften weight of injuries of passengers during side crash. Such protectant have in armrests of front seat and also in back of rear seat. New variations of such supportive applications are issued by the Mercedes-Benz company and other automobile firms. The pillow safety for the pedestrian Effectiveness of use of safety devices has induced automobile designers to take out witty them out of limits of interiors of passenger cars. Has so appeared the safety device for pedestrians for the first time offered in 2012 by the Volvo company.
Condition for operation Despite numerous constructive options of production of defensors, the principle of their functioning has practically not undergone significant changes in recent years and remains invariable. Key condition of operation of airbag – contact piece of car to other car or heavy subject. It is instantly activated and works when the blow has happened to foreign subject, and the speed of operation is very high. At excess of certain level the blow sensor instantly sends signal to the control package then all complex of the issues connected with operation of the protective gear at once is automatically resolved. Depending on what direction of blow and what speed of blow, works either all protective complex, or only its certain part.