Pluses and minuses of hybrid cars
Today the car stops being luxury goods. Practically in each family there is vehicle, and sometimes and not one. The bulk of cars on our roads are the cars with the internal combustion engine using gasoline, but even more often it is possible to meet car with electric motors. Unfortunately, both of these options are not faultless at all. Producers of “automotive industry” have considered claims to both types of engines and have developed hybrid cars which began to be produced in lots since 1997.
In what feature of hybrid cars. Cars about DVS and electric vehicles Before starting the analysis of hybrid engines, let’s compare internal combustion engines and electric motors. The ordinary car at one gas station can pass four hundred-five hundred kilometers. Gas station will not cause any problems – fuel stations today much and process of fuel filling will demand only several minutes. Power of such engines rather high that very much is pleasant to many motorists. But there are several enough big minuses – it is the cost of gasoline and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, owners of these vehicles and car makers to affect gasoline cost not in forces, and from year to year it only grows. And here the second shortcoming comes out on top today. Many countries enter administrative regulation of exhaust gases and many motorists do not want to cause to the environment excessive damage.
Electric vehicles surpass car with DVS in many parameters. This total absence of exhausts and “gas station” will cost much cheaper. But also shortcomings here too are enough. First of all most of motorists do not want to pass to electric vehicles because they much less powerful also cannot gather desirable speed. This fact does not play special role in city conditions, but here at movement on routes in the country the shortcoming is often notable. One more important problem can become the fact that in our country there is practically no infrastructure directed to service of such cars – there are neither places of recharge of accumulators, nor good car services. Such cars on one charging can pass up to 160 km., but here recharge of the accumulator will demand not less than two hours that is not always convenient.
The hybrid Having considered cars all available shortcomings of internal combustion engines and electric motors, car makers have designed and have put production of “hybrid” cars on stream. They have managed to unite environmental friendliness and economy of the electric motor, and power of usual. Such association has allowed to depress expenses on operation considerably. All this has been reached because “hybrid” has received 2 power supplies and 2 power units. Practically all hybrid cars are arranged as follows:
Internal combustion engine. It has the dimensions which are a little reduced in comparison with usual car. It allows to depress the mass of the car and to increase power. Fuel tank. It is intended for providing with DVS fuel. Electric motor. It is designed for collaboration with DVS. This type of the motor makes recharge of the accumulator and can be separate or built-in. Accumulator. It completely provides with energy the electric motor and gives food to onboard system. Gear box. Its functions remain the same, but depending on type of “hybrid” can differ a little. Inverter. He allows to transform current from constant to variable, and back. Besides there is distribution of the arriving energy and steering of the electric motor. Generator. It is intended for power generation by the principle of operation of the electric motor.
Types of hybrid power units the Device of the hybrid car will include without fail DVS and the motor-alternator. As a result of it the electric motor will include functions of the traction electric motor, the generator of energy and the DVS starter. Today there are 3 types of the hybrid power unit: Micro hybrid SA. This type of drive gear is intended only for function performance start – stop which is carried out only with use of the electric motor. DVS is connected later. The remained energy is exposed to recovery process, will be transformed and goes back to the 12-vol accumulator. This energy can be used by the car independently during difficulties on the road – descent, rise, dirt, etc. This system optimum is suitable for movement on city plugs And in this option it is impossible to go by the electric motor, but the power of the developed energy quite big and remains in the high-voltage accumulator. It allows to increase if necessary considerably power on the main engine. Full-hybrid SA. In this case we have trafic ability with application of both types of the engine which are optimum coordinated among themselves. On the electric motor the car can pass quite long distances. This chance is given by quite powerful accumulator. Recharge process is carried out according to the scheme of recovery too. The ordinary engine is connected only in case of need.
The principle of interaction of engines Car makers use a little different schemes according to which engines interact: Consecutive. It is the simplest principle of operation of the hybrid engine of the car. From DVS only the generator which sends the developed energy for accumulator charging works and feeds the electric motor. In such models from the electric motor rotation of driving wheels turns out. As a result of it the need for clutch and gear box completely disappears. The accumulator also receives recharge from braking process. Unfortunately, when transforming energy there is its partial loss. The internal combustion engine in this case is used the most low power with possibility of work with the maximum efficiency. This scheme gives the chance of blackout of DVS. The electric motor and batteries in this case are used, on the contrary, more powerful. It is preferable to use such models of cars in city conditions and in some special-purpose equipment. Parallel. This scheme means parallel use of both types of engines. The leading role in such models is played by the ordinary engine, and electric just renders it the necessary help. Energy in such cases is lost much less. As the producer can use batteries of lower power, and the cost of such “hybrids” is much lower. Use of such scheme could not provide considerable improvements and by the number of harmful blowouts, and on number of technical indicators. It is the most relevant to use such cars on routes, but in the city they are ineffective. Consecutive parallel. This scheme was developed by Japanese “Toyota”. From the name it becomes clear that in such models both previous types are integrated. This model allows to make start or the movement at very small speed by means of the electric motor, and DVS carries out support of the generator. This option of hybrid allows to save quite significantly fuel and to keep the highest technical rates. Here the additional generator, joint stock bank of high capacity and very difficult electronics is required. Especially appreciation to this option will be given by fans of the nature for environmental friendliness. Only high cost belongs to obvious minuses of these cars.
The main advantages Despite quite high cost of cars with hybrid engines, more and more people incline to their purchase. As they note the main poles: Environmental protection. Drop of amount of exhaust gases allows to make air in the city and on all planet is slightly cleaner, and it is already advantage for all. The car does not demand external electric charging that is important. Fuel consumption is considerably cut too and the owner of car receives quite big economy of money. All models of this kind have the good technical characteristics which are often surpassing characteristics of regular cars. Minuses of hybrid cars Along with the listed pluses “hybrids” have also number of negative sides to which it is possible to carry: Very high cost of the car. The high complexity in design involves the high cost of service. Insufficiently developed system of car services. The complexity of hybrid design demands good knowledge and high quality experts in auto repair shops that is not always possible, especially in remote settlements. At failure of batteries the owner of car should look for the place of available utilization long enough.
What to us is offered by rating Proceeding from the above described characteristics, “hybrid” models have very good prospects in the automobile market. Already today showrooms offer more than one and a half tens various cars with the hybrid engine. Practically all leading car makers have “hybrid” cars in the lines. The price of such cars quite high, but it is in many respects proved. In 2018 in the market big variety of “hybrids” is noted. They became even more economic and can satisfy motorists with absolutely different requirements. The top of the best hybrid cars, perhaps, can head the SUV – Lexus RX 450h.
Most economic “hybrid” on fuel consumption Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid which basis is the new platform is considered. Those who prefer “hatch-backs” can pay the attention to Chevrolet Volt Hybrid. Toyota offers very qualitative Toyota Camry Hybrid sedan. The rating of hybrid station wagons by right heads Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid. Considering the high starting cost of all hybrid cars, the most inexpensive option is legendary Toyota Prius.