In this article we will tell you about the varieties of car suspensions.
Alas, but, the quality of our roads is getting worse and worse. Therefore, in order for the movement by car to bring maximum comfort, and it is not so strongly felt unexpected cats and pits caught along the way, various suspension designs have been developed. Due to them, interaction between wheel pairs and car body is carried out, vibration during movement is significantly reduced. Most motorists believe that different types of hangers are made for specific types of vehicles. Whether it ‘s or not, we ‘ll try to figure it out.
It is worth noting that the suspension is quite complex system consisting of the following elements:
- Vibration damper;
- Wheel supports;
- Special device (stabilizer) providing stability to the vehicle by means of centrifugal force suppression;
Each of the suspension parts is multi functional. For example, the spring acts as a guide, damper, and provides wheel damping. In modern vehicles, regardless of their types, the suspension components can be independent while having a complex device. The elastic members provide a permanent connection between the body structure and the roadway, equalizing the vibrations. This is possible due to the presence of shock absorbers, torsion bars and springs in the suspension structure. Note that springs can be either of the same diameter over the entire length or variable. At the same time rigidity of the latter constantly changes. The spring structure includes a special tight rubber baffle, which prevents its complete compression, acting as a vibration damper during impacts against the pit.
Springs and Torsions
Design of spring elements consists of different-line metal strips. In turn, all spring elements are divided into:
The latter view is the twisting rods located inside the metal body-tube. Torsion bars also include all pneumatic and hydropermatic structures of suspension. In pneumatic elements the main driving force is air, and in hydro-pneumatic – liquid and gas. During movement these parts ensure correct spatial position of the body.
Lateral stability stabilizer makes it possible to achieve uniform distribution of load between suspension elements at the moment of turning. It is also executed as a torsion element.
Other parts of suspension help to strengthen the body, correct location of front and rear wheelsets relative to it. Guide parts allow proper distribution of centrifugal forces occurring at the moment of movement.
Shock absorbers allow to smooth constantly increasing body oscillations and vibrations. Structurally, they are metal tubes containing working fluid (oil) or gas.
All suspension elements are attached by bolts, silent blocks and ball supports.
Types of car suspensions
It is known that all existing suspensions today are independent, dependent and other arbitrary species. Consider each type.
A feature of the dependent suspension is the presence of a special beam in its design, which allows to align wheels located on opposite sides. If one of the wheels is displaced for some reason, the same will happen to the other. This species has been used on vehicles for many years, however recently the dependent suspension has been significantly upgraded. Today in it the spring system, which was used for a long time, is replaced by longitudinal levers, and as a stabilizer there is a special transverse rod. It is necessary to note the positive aspects of the last type of structure, to which, in addition to the small mass and stability of the value of the collapse angle, also refers the high rigidity of the structure, which is especially relevant given the condition of our roads.
The dependent suspension provides the vehicle with a constant grip on the road cover regardless of the conditions and type of ride. But, there are also disadvantages, which include the probability of loss of stability of the car when performing a turn or impact on an obstacle by one of the wheels. Also, due to the presence of transverse position of the thrust, controllability is reduced.
The dependent type suspension is mainly the prerogative of trucks and some models of four-wheel drive vehicles where it is mounted at the rear.
As for the independent type of suspension, it is represented by a more complex design with no relationship between wheels. For example, a suspension, where the main bearing elements are longitudinal levers, which have a hinged attachment with a body. Due to the strength of all elements of the system, a clear parallel arrangement of wheel sets is achieved. The car with this type of suspension has better maneuverability and good handling, however, when entering the turn it is necessary to significantly reset the speed, because during manoeuvres, the body of the vehicle is heated, as a result of which there is a loss of stability
Semi-dependent types of hangers include torsion-lever structure, which combines two types described above. The elastic element, instead of springs, shock absorbers and springs, here protrudes a torsion bar, which may have a circular or square section, and protrudes as a link between the frame and wheels. Due to its simplicity and compactness, this semi-dependent suspension is mainly part of the design of small urban small-scale panels. The only minus – has increased rigidity, as a result of which it is suitable only for driving on good roads.
One of the most common types of suspension is the “swing candle,” or known to all Macpherson motorists. It can be installed on both the front and butt of the vehicle, and works well in any position due to the increased distance between the main support elements. It is one of the cheapest, compact and easiest to maintain types of running gear in automotive machinery.
However, McPherson, like the torsion-lever type of suspension, does not like bad roads and quite often suffers from a change in the angle of collapse. But, it still doesn ‘t prevent him from being one of the most sought-after species today.
The first type of suspension to be installed on old sports cars was the two-wing. In it transversely arranged levers are connected to sub frame or car body. Due to this design, it is quite easy to adjust the parameters of convergence. This type is good in that, despite all the irregularities of the road surface, the wheels are in a constant vertical position, resulting in smooth travel and less wear on the rubber. The only drawback is a complex, multi-element design.
By complexity, it is followed by a multi-wheel type of running gear. This suspension also provides the car with smooth running, maneuverability and excellent handling. Therefore, it is installed on all models of expensive vehicles. A minimum of four arms are included in this type of suspension, thereby increasing its cost, and there are some maintenance problems. However complex its design may be, road irregularities are still well felt during travel.
It is not ideal to call any of the types of running gear described, alas, because each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.