Electromechanical booster of steering
What is an electromechanical steering amplifier.
The improvement of the steering control of vehicles is carried out gradually, in measure of the development of new technologies, and it is often hidden from the eyes of ordinary motors. For example, 20 years ago, all high-end vehicles were equipped with a steering hydraulic booster as the most reliable and time-tested element of construction. Today its place was surely taken by electromechanical steering amplifier, which is often found even on budget small-scale cars.
Steering electrification – a step into the future
The reason for the improvement and modernization of steering was the constant increase in the requirements put forward by car buyers. And the need to reduce the total weight of vehicles. In other words, the steering hydraulic amplifier is gradually going away because the electrification of vehicles extends to almost all assemblies and actuators, and steering is no exception here. The very first developments of electromechanical steering power were very imperfect, causing drivers to feel unnatural when driving, but these times have long passed and today most serial vehicles are equipped with efficient and reliable electromechanical steering power.
To date, electromechanical and electrohydraulic reinforcement systems are the most popular. In the latter type, as in the old days, oil is used. The motor controls the pump to provide the necessary system pressure. Nevertheless, the future development of the automotive industry is undoubtedly related to the electromechanical steering system.
Advantages of electric steering
- Is not necessary in the use of liquid (oil);
- Force is caused exclusively at the right moment during rudder turning, increasing fuel economy;
The steering force can be easily varied according to the speed of the vehicle.
Increase passive safety
Electromechanical steering is one of the most promising developments that are aimed at improving cars. This system can be successfully combined with emergency prevention devices and vehicle parking systems.
Principle of operation of electromechanical steering amplifier
The force applied by the driver to the steering wheel is transmitted by means of the torsion rod by its rotation method, the moment of which acts on the sensor and is transmitted to the electronic control unit (ECU). The latter processes and transmits accurate signal to actuating motor generating torque of required force to steering mechanism. In the steering mechanism, the force is transmitted to the unit called the steering rack by means of a worm screw or a ball nut screw.
Maximum support during parking
In calculating the force, the ECU feels not only the speed of the steering wheel, but also takes into account the speed of the vehicle. If the speed of the car is high enough, the support force will be minimal, but with support its value will be maximum. To date, several types of electromechanical steering amplifiers are commercially available, each designed for a certain weight and design of the vehicle. At the same time, in the vast majority of compact cars, the steering gear is installed on the steering column, in the average weight of the machines – on the gear of the control mechanism, and some heavy vehicles contain a double steering mechanism.